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Table 4 Details of the best model calibration fits for all DWDS pipe lengths modelled. The first set of parameters for each pipe system is the result of trying to fit to the earlier part of the flushing phase and the second set from trying to fit to the later part

From: Calibrating and validating a combined accumulation and mobilisation model for water distribution system discolouration using particle swarm optimisation

Pipe(s) Material D [mm] β e β r α \( {\beta}_r^{-1} \) (yrs) \( \widehat{\tau_{max}} \) \( \widehat{\tau_c} \) R 2 NSEI
PODDS-CI1 Unlined CI 95 6.41 × 104 N/A 0.593 N/A N/A 1.058 0.889
PODDS-CI2 Unlined CI 76 (51) 5.038 × 104 N/A 0.585 N/A N/A 4.241 0.74
PODDS-PE1 PE 89 1.123 × 102 N/A 0.504 N/A 1.779 0.005 0.385
PODDS-PE2 PE 72 8.79 × 104 N/A 0.544 N/A 3.954 0.006 0.181
TM-NR Lined steel 800 7.650 × 105 1.717 × 108 5.472 1.846 N/A N/A 0.311
TM-WB Unlined DI 344 3.41 × 104 3.500 × 10 8 8.251 0.905 N/A N/A 0.709