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Table 3 Average and standard deviation results of fitting the VCDM to the PODDS-CI1 dataset five times using PSO. The fitted variables were the βe and α VCDM parameter values, the maximum layer strength, τmax, and the initial shear strength, τc. Also shown is the relative similarity between prediction and observation time-series using the Nash Sutcliffe (Model) Efficiency Index (NSEI) and the number of iterations the PSO algorithm took to converge. 4* shows data after selection due to data quality considerations

From: Calibrating and validating a combined accumulation and mobilisation model for water distribution system discolouration using particle swarm optimisation

Flush Value βe α τmax τc NSEI Iterations
1 average 6.41E-04 0.6 N/A 1.07 0.89 164
1 SD 4.47E-07 0.0 N/A 0.03 0.00 53
2 average 5.00E-04 0.6 N/A 4.11 0.74 173
2 SD 8.71E-06 0.0 N/A 0.35 0.00 31
3 average 1.60E-01 0.5 2.3 0.67 −0.21 176
3 SD 3.32E-01 0.1 1.0 1.49 1.32 70
4 average 2.26E-03 71.8 6.2 3.34 −0.64 186
4 SD 3.33E-03 155.8 2.7 4.55 0.93 80
4* average 1.01E-03 0.4 5.7 0.02 −0.08 212
4* SD 1.77E-04 0.1 3.4 0.01 0.28 74