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Table 1 Components of Water Balance (Lambert, 2002)

From: Adaptation of multiple regression analysis to identify effective factors of water losses in water distribution systems

System
input
volume
Authorized
consumption
Billed authorized
consumption
Billed metered consumption
(including water exported)
Revenue
water
Billed non-metered consumption
Unbilled
authorized
consumption
Unbilled metered consumption Non-
revenue
water
Unbilled non-metered consumption
Water
losses
Apparent losses Unauthorized consumption
Metering inaccuracies
Real losses Leak on transmission and/or
distribution mains
Leaks and overflows at utility’s
storage tanks
Leaks in service connections up to customer meters